Western Lesser Sunda Islands and Sumba Coastal Area IMMA
Size in Square Kilometres
Qualifying Species and Criteria
Dugong – Dugong dugon
Criterion A; B (1); C (2)
Marine Mammal Diversity
Stenella longirostris, Stenella attenuata
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The Lesser Sunda Coastal Area (LSCA) comprises a non-contiguous area of water and small islands from Bali to the Wetar Islands. It contains the four provincial administrative areas of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara (WNT), East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) and Maluku. The Western Lesser Sunda Islands and Sumba coastal area IMMA consists of coastal areas of the Bali Islands, Lombok Islands, Sumbawa Islands, the western part of Flores, and Sumba Island. This IMMA has numerous seagrass meadows and a large number of sightings of dugong. Sighting information from a participatory mapping process (which gathered information from more than 1500 respondents), the coastal community’s local knowledge, a ground-truthing survey and direct sightings, have confirmed that dugongs are found at 41 locations within the area. Sightings are mostly of single individuals, and three individuals sighted in Komodo National Park. The species is increasingly vulnerable due to habitat loss and habitat overlap with human activities such as seaweed farming.
Description of Qualifying Criteria
Criterion A – Species or Population Vulnerability
Dugong dugon (Muller, 1776) has been assessed as a Vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List since 1982. The data on dugongs in Indonesia or even in Lesser Sunda remains limited. It is estimated that there are around 1,000 individuals in Indonesia (Marsh et. al. 2002). Therefore, the Indonesian government declared the dugong as a fully protected species along with all other marine mammals (Government Regulation – No. 7. 1999). The species is becoming increasingly vulnerable due to habitat lost and overlap with human activities such as none eco-friendly seaweed farming activities.
Criterion B: Distribution and Abundance
Sub-criterion B1: Small and Resident Populations
According to sightings information from a participatory citizen mapping process, that gathered information from more than 1500 fishers and coastal community’s local knowledge, as well as ground-truthing surveys and direct sightings, dugongs have been recorded in at least 41 locations within the area. Most were single individuals, and 3 individuals sighted in Komodo National Park (Mustika, 2005; Merryanto et al. 2017; unpublished data from The Nature Conservancy, unpublished data from Misool Foundation). Individual dugongs have been sighted by surfers at Uluwatu and Padang beaches on the southwest extremity of the South Bali Peninsula (Marsh, 2002).
Criterion C: Key Life Cycle Activities
Sub-criterion C2: Feeding Areas
In the Lesser Sunda Coastal Area dugongs are recorded close to seagrass areas (Merryanto et al. 2017), in particular around beds of Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis, Enhalus acoroides, Thalassia hemprichii, Cymodocea rotundata, Cymodocea serrulata, and Syringodium isoetifolium.
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Juraij, S.D. and Munandar, E. 2017. Survey bioekologi dan tingkah laku dugong di Kelurahan Kabola perairan SAP Selat Pantar dan Laut Sekitarnya Kabupaten Alor, Nusa Tenggara Timur (Bioecology and behaviour survey of dugong in Kabola village waters of Pantar Strait and surrounding waters Nature Marine Sanctuary, Alor District, East Nusa Tenggara). Technical report. WWF-Indonesia.
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Merryanto, Y., Rusydi, Sri, N., Vimeris, M. T. and Fajariyanto, Y. 2017. Pemetaan Partisipatif di Ekoregion Sunda Kecil (Participatory mapping of Lesser Sunda Ecoregion). The Nature Conservancy – Indonesia Coasts and Ocean Program. 140 hal.